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Geology

 

 

 

Sinai, the triangular-shaped peninsula of Egypt, is situated between Asia and Africa. The separation of the two continents caused the form and geographical shape of Sinai the way it looks today.

Sinai is approx. 380 km long (north - south) and 210 km wide (west - east). The surface area has an extension of 61.000 km², the coasts are streching about 600 km on the west and on the east. On the western part there is the Gulf of Suez (with the Suez channel) and the eastern part of Sinai brings up the much deeper Gulf of Aqaba. The sea in the Gulf of Suez measures approx. 80 meters only, while the profile of the Gulf of Aqaba goes down to approx. 1.830 meters. The latter is a part of the big land rift that extends until Kenya.

 

Big siesmic activity and the tremendous eruptive phenomena have given Sinai its characteristic looks. The highest mountains are the Gebel Musa (Moses’ mountain) with 2,285 metres, and the Sinai's highest mountain Mount St. Catherine (Gebel Kathrina) with 2,642 metres. Many of the Pharaohs got their precious stones from the southern Sinai.


The west coast - reaching from Ras Mohammed to Taba - is filled with rich coral reefs sections, one after another. This under water paradise is giving ideal conditions for flora and marine fauna, and finally nowadays for divers.

The northern part of Sinai mainly consists of sandstone plains and hills. The Tih Plateau forms the boundary between the northern area and the southern mountainous with towering peaks.

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